Shaken Baby Syndrome

A large number of child deaths are reported in South Africa each year. A lot of deaths relate to neglect, abuse or murder. Despite this, there's a knowledge gap in relation to understanding the issue....

Amniotic fluid problems

The importance of amniotic fluid Amniotic fluid is essential for pregnancy and foetal development. Amniotic fluid is a watery substances residing inside a casing called the amniotic membrane or sac. ...

Choosing a pre-school

Becoming a parent is a momentous; life-changing event filled with hopes, expectations and naturally some fears. Parents often learn and grow alongside their children, as they face the challenges of pa...

Newborn reflexes

Although newborn babies are physically helpless and vulnerable at birth, they have a number of amazing innate abilities or reflexes. Reflexes are involuntary movements or actions, designed to protect ...


Mastitis is an inflammation of the breast that can lead to infection. The word “mastitis” is derived from the Greek word “mastos” meaning “breasts”, while the suffix “-itis” denotes “inflammation”. Ma...

Pelvic floor exercises

Although your new baby will probably bring you immense emotional satisfaction, physically you may feel uncomfortable and strange in your own skin. After 9 months of pregnancy and hormonal changes, you...


Babies cry because they need to communicate something and most parents, especially new moms, find it distressing to see or hear an unhappy baby. In time, you will learn to recognize the various causes...

Antenatal Classes

Antenatal classes are informative sessions provided to prepare expecting parents for the birth of their child and the early days of being a parent.Most antenatal classes are run by Midwives and occasi...


The Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011-2020 was launched on the 11 May 2011. It is a global declaration of war against road crashes and fatalities. According to Mr Sibusiso Ndebele, MP Minister of ...

  • Shaken Baby Syndrome

    Tuesday, 21 July 2015 16:28
  • Amniotic fluid problems

    Thursday, 14 May 2015 12:54
  • Choosing a pre-school

    Friday, 10 April 2015 17:50
  • Newborn reflexes

    Tuesday, 03 March 2015 15:49
  • Mastitis

    Tuesday, 03 March 2015 15:41
  • Pelvic floor exercises

    Wednesday, 11 February 2015 17:20
  • Colic

    Wednesday, 11 February 2015 17:11
  • Antenatal Classes

    Monday, 03 June 2013 09:34
  • Strap-in-the-Future

    Thursday, 30 June 2011 13:52

Why babies cry and how to soothe them

Babies cry as a means of communication, to indicate that they are hungry, tired, scared, in pain, and more. Even entirely healthy newborns will cry for between 1 to 3 hours per day, because they are reliant on other people to meet their basic needs. ....

Toddler Sleep

Do toddlers really need naps? Yes. Naps are essential for your toddler's good health until the age of 4 years. Research suggests that naps are crucial to a baby's brain development. Without them, a child's physical and mental development can suffer. ....

Toddler eating

Is it normal for my toddler to eat less than she did when she was an infant? Because growth slows after the first birthday, it is normal for a toddler's appetite to decrease. Why does her appetite vary so much day to day? Because toddlers are eager ....

Will I hurt my baby’s soft spot if I rub it when I wash his hair?

The medical name for a baby’s soft spot is called the anterior fontanelle. This is an opening in the bones of the skull that allows the cranium to grow. The fontanelle is covered with a very tough membrane so you will not hurt it when washing or br....

What’s the best way to clean the whitish material that builds up between a baby girl’s outside and inside vaginal lips?

Cleaning the discharge that accumulates between the labia majora (outside vaginal lips) and labia minora (inside vaginal lips) bother parents as much as cleaning a little boy’s testicles. A girl is often born with this discharge and it protects the....

I’m worried that I will hurt my son’s testicles when I clean him up after a poo.

Before puberty, it does not hurt if a boy’s testicles are manipulated. Although it’s logical to be gentle, don’t worry about causing your son any pain when you clean him up after a bowel movement.

When I’m changing my baby, I notice tiny opalescent beads around her anus and vagina. If I rub them between my fingers, they have a slight waxy feel. What is this?

It’s called an Epstein’s Pearl and is nothing to worry about. The pearl is composed of mucus cells trapped under a thin membrane. It will go away in the first few weeks of life. Babies often have two variations of this lesion that you may see in ....

Why does my baby get hiccups after she feeds?

Breastfed and bottle fed babies can often get hiccups after feeding. This happens because they reflux some stomach contents into their oesophagus after eating and the acid stimulates a nerve that causes the hiccups. Hiccups generally resolve after a ....

Although my baby takes her bottle without any problems, she spits her pacifier out. Why doesn’t she like it?

Babies don’t suck on things the way we do. Instead of creating negative pressure with their cheeks (that’s what kids and adults do), they lick with their tongues at the same time they work their jaws. Therefore, when a baby sucks on a pacifier, s....

When will I be able to tell the colour of my baby’s eyes?

Babies of European descent usually have dark, slate blue eyes at birth. Babies of Asian or African descent usually have brown eyes at birth. Final eye colour is usually apparent by six months of age, but occasionally remains a mystery until a baby is....

The whites of my baby’s eyes are blue. Is that normal?

The white part of the eye is called the sclera and the tissue inside the sclera is called the choroid. The choroid is bluish in colour and it can be seen through the sclera in the first few months of life because the sclera is thin. If an older baby ....

Can I take my baby out?

Of course. Going out for a walk is a great activity. If the baby is in a pram, protect them from direct sunlight and dress them warmly enough. If carrying them in a pouch, protect their head and face from the sun or wind. Take care not to overdress t....

Is it safe to leave my baby alone?

As long as the baby is in his cot, you can hear your child if he cries (get a monitor if necessary), the room is a comfortable temperature and he isn’t too hot then you can leave your baby to sleep alone. Do not leave a baby unattended on a couch, ....

How can I tell if my baby’s bowel movements normal?

When your baby is born his first bowel movements will be dark green or black and sticky, this is called meconium. They will then change to a mustardy yellow colour with small bits, often described as bird-seed like. A formula fed baby will have soft ....

Is my baby too hot?

Overheating is a recognized sign of Cot Death or Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). To avoid overheating, place the back of your hand on the tummy or the neck, if it is damp or sweaty then your child is too hot, and you need to cool the baby down b....

Why does my baby cry all the time?

Crying is your baby’s only means of communicating. As you get to know your baby, so too will you get to know variances in his cries. He may just want attention or be lonely. He may also be uncomfortable, have a wind, be hungry, feel cold or hot. A ....

Is my child gaining enough weight?

Average, weekly weight gain is 200gms. Some babies only gain 100gms, some as much as 300gms. One week there might be a gain of about a 150 gm and the next will be about a 250gm weight gain. Bottle fed babies tend to start gaining weight from birth, w....

Can I really keep expressed breast milk in the freezer for 3 months?

Yes. Expressed breast milk can stay in the fridge for a maximum of 24hrs and in a good quality freezer for a maximum of 3 months. Frozen breast milk can be defrosted in the fridge or at room temperature. It should be warmed up to body temperature in ....

Do I need to clean my baby’s nose?

It is only necessary to clean baby’s nose if there is some congestion that may be interfering with feeding or sleeping. Saline nasal spray or drops are often sufficient to “wash” the congestion away. If it is thick nasal mucous, an aspirator ma....

Why must my baby face backwards in the car seat?

A baby should face backwards in their car seat for the first 9 months or until they weigh 9 kg. For the first 9 months, their head is approximately 1/3 of their body weight and if there is an impact it could cause a forward facing baby to be propelle....

My baby has crusty eyes in the morning, what can I do?

Newborn babies can get excessive “sleep” in the corners of their eyes due to an immaturity of the tear ducts. This can easily be wiped with moist cotton wool and it resolves itself by about 2 months. There can be an excessive amount of discharge,....

My baby just cries all the time, what can I do?

This depends very much on the circumstances behind the crying. (Read more: crying) or send me an e-mail: for a personal answer.

Do I need to give my baby water to drink?

Most babies under 5 months, drinking either breastmilk or formula do not require extra water to drink. One usually starts introducing cool, boiled water when introducing solid foods.

Can I travel with my little baby?

This depends on where, how and how long the journey will take. Send me an e-mail: for a specific answer.

Is it Ok for my baby to suck his thumb?

Yes. A lot of babies need to soothe themselves by sucking on their fists, which can become thumb-sucking as they get older. It is your choice if you wish to encourage this or the use of a dummy.

Can I feed my baby both breastmilk and formula?

This can be done and in various ways, however expressed breast milk and formula should not be mixed in the same bottle. Seek guidance from your clinic nurse or send an e-mail to for specific advice.

What is the difference between a posset and a vomit?

Bringing up a small amount of milk when a baby burps is called a posset. This is quite common, especially with breast fed babies. If the baby is healthy and gaining weight, there is no reason for concern. Larger amounts would be considered to be vomi....

When will my baby sleep through the night?

This is a difficult question to answer as there are many variables to the concept of “sleeping through”. Some parents see having 12 hours uninterrupted sleep as the goal, others only expect 8 hours uninterrupted sleep as ideal. Most understand it....

Can I use soap on my baby’s skin when I wash her?

It is advisable to use a very mild soap or aqueous cream when bathing baby for the first few weeks. Avoid soap on their face. If there is a reaction to any product that is used, seek medical advice to find a cleanser that is best for your baby’s sk....

My 3-month-old is drooling a lot and chewing on things. Does that mean she’s teething?

A few interesting things happen at three months of age: (1) a baby has enough motor skills to confidently grab objects and pull them to her mouth, (2) a baby likes chewing on things more than before, and (3) a baby’s major salivary gland (the parot....

My 6-week-old has a soft bowel movement twice a day. However, before she goes, she strains real hard and gets red in the face. What should I do to treat her constipation?

If your baby is feeding well and gaining weight, I don’t think she is actually constipated—the definition of constipation is producing hard, dry stools. Babies sometimes grunt and strain when having a bowel movement because of a reflex that tells....

My 2-month-old is losing her hair. When will it grow back?

It’s common for babies to lose their hair in the first few months of life. For some infants, the hair grows back quickly. For others, they may look like little old men until they are 9- to 12-months of age.

My 2-month-old baby hasn’t made a poo all week?

It depends on what baby is drinking. A baby drinking purely breastmilk can occasionally have no bowel movement due to growth spurts and as their digestive system matures. If there are plenty of wet nappies and the baby is comfortable give it another ....

What is the rash my 6 week baby has all over its face?

This is quite possibly millia, small tiny white spots usually spreading across the nose and cheeks and up onto the forehead and in severe cases over the whole face and into the neck. They can appear worse if the baby has very fair skin or is too warm....

My 3 week old is stuffy all the time and sneezes a lot. Isn’t he too young to have a cold?

Although your 3 week old is not too young to have a cold, the chances are he doesn’t. Babies have to breathe through their noses for the first few months of life. Their nasal passages are small, however, which explains the “stuffy” sound you he....

My son was circumcised three days ago. His penis was red at first, but now there’s some yellow pus on the head. What should we do?

Right after a newborn is circumcised; the head of the penis is bright red and has a “wet” look. Over the next few days, the head becomes drier and takes on a dull red appearance. The head returns to its normal skin colour about a week after the c....

My 3-week-old’s big toenails are in-grown. Is this normal?

Although this is a common observation, it is not usually due to truly ingrown nails. A newborn’s toenails have the consistency of parchment and because of intrauterine positioning; the nail may grow up against the fleshy part of the toe. The reason....

My 2-week-old has a small amount of milk coming from his nipples. Is this normal?

Male and female infants can be born with swollen breasts, due to the effect of maternal hormones on their breast tissue. A small percentage of babies also get a milky discharge from their nipples which resolves in a few days. You should not squeeze t....

My 10-day-old still has his umbilical cord. It’s gooey and smells bad. What should I do?

It is not unusual for the cord area to have an unpleasant smell a few days before it falls off. The reason for this is because the cord remnant is actually decaying, i.e., the umbilical stump does not have a blood supply and the body’s immune syste....

If I carry my newborn in a carry pouch, will it hurt his back?

Infants are very flexible and carrying them in an infant carrier will not cause back pain. The main thing to be concerned about when you use an infant carrier is that their head is well supported and that they don’t get too hot.

My newborn has overlapping toes. Should I tape them to straighten them out?

Things are pretty tight in the uterus and babies have a few “problems” because of this. Their shins are bowed because their legs were crossed in-utero, and their toes may overlap as well. If your newborn has overlapping toes because of these intr....

For the first week of my son’s life, I kept finding a pink stain in his nappy. Does he have blood in his urine?

Your baby was excreting uric acid crystals in his urine. This is a common finding in the first week or two of life. Although parents often report seeing “blood” in their baby’s urine, on further questioning we find out that there is a pink or s....

This morning I saw some blood coming from my 5-day-old’s vagina. Should I worry?

Baby girls commonly have a small amount of whitish discharge from their vagina. In some cases, this discharge turns bright red—it happens because the baby is shedding the lining of her uterus just like women do when they have their periods. This is....

My 1-week-old is peeling and has very dry skin around his wrists and ankles. What should I do about this?

During the pregnancy, babies are floating in amniotic fluid. For most of this time, they are covered with a greasy white material called vernix caseosa. Unfortunately, by the end of the pregnancy, the concentration of vernix lessens and the baby’s ....

My 3-day-old has a blister on her upper lip. Do you know where this came from and when it will go away?

This is called a sucking blister. It doesn’t bother the baby and usually falls off in a few days. Often a baby will get more than one in the first few weeks of life.

Is it normal to have piles after giving birth?

One third of women can develop piles during pregnancy. They are swollen veins around the rectum that may itch and ache or cause extreme discomfort. Ice packs can be applied to reduce the swelling as well as specific topical haemorrhoid ointments. Ple....

Why am I still bleeding a month after the birth?

Vaginal bleeding after the birth of your baby is from the uterus at the area where the placenta was attached. It can take up to six weeks for the uterus to return to its normal size and for the bleeding to stop. The blood should be dark in colour and....

Choosing a pre-school

preschoolsBecoming a parent is a momentous; life-changing event filled with hopes, expectations and naturally some fears. Parents often learn and grow alongside their children, as they face the challenges of parenting, planning and decision making at each stage of their child’s development. Universally health is unsurprisingly the primary concern of parents, with other interests shifting and changing as baby grows. Google data indicate that expectant parents frequently search for “pregnancy”, as well as “school” and “education”. It seems that future parents are considering, budgeting and planning for their child’s education pre-birth.

Early development and learning

The period from birth to five years of age sees the most rapid development of your child’s brain. Infants and young children have an immense capacity and desire for learning. Parental and other influences during the formative years lay the groundwork and have a profound effect on later formal education. Parents are their child’s primary teacher. By age three, they have built what Dr. Sears calls the fundamental person. Your three year old has greater self-awareness and has acquired motor, language, adaptive and social skills that together with their personality and innate abilities make up who they are.

Toddlers tend to show a strong desire for companionship, as well as a yearning to refine the skills they have learned thus far. While the home lays the foundation for attitudes, values and motivation, the school is an extension of your child’s learning. Parents of toddlers are faced with the important task of choosing a preschool for their child that compliments and provides an extension of the home.

Finding the best fit

Every child and general family situation are unique, making the decision of why, when, and where to send your child to preschool, a highly individual one. To help you identify and focus on schools that fit with your child’s capabilities, needs and personality, the “Picky Parent Guide” has developed a target list to isolate the most important characteristics of your child, situation and school. They have called these features the “Four Fit Factors”, namely what your child learns (including their abilities and interests), how your child learns (such as motivation, learning style and disabilities), social issues and practical matters (including location, number of students, orientation and extra curricular activities).

The educational philosophy

Some parents have some idea about the type of schooling they would like for their child and put their name on a waiting list before they are born. Other parents are less definite and circumstances may change over time. In searching for a preschool, you’ll need to consider the schools fundamental philosophy or approach. Are you happy with the government school system, or do you want your child to go to a private school from day one? Are you considering alternative forms of education such as Montessori, Waldorf Steiner, or Reggio Emilia? Maybe you want your child to go to a school whose religious values match your own or a co-op preschool, with a high level of parental involvement?

The school environment

Essentially, no one knows your child better than you do. Can you imagine them thriving in a busy, active environment with lots of other children, or a quieter, more nurturing environment, with fewer pupils. Consider the look and feel of the school. Is it warm and inviting, or cold and institutional? Is it clean and organized, or chaotic and messy? What is the condition of both indoor and outdoor equipment? How often is it used? Do the children’s creations decorate the walls? Do the children look happy? Are they interacting with one another?

The teachers and staff

Your child is accustomed to being surrounded by loving family members. Preschool is usually the first time they will spend a significant portion of their day outside the home environment. Is your child’s teacher warm and engaging or authoritarian? The best teachers are able to bond with your child and make them feel safe. Once a connection has been formed, learning is able to take place. Observe the teacher during both free play and more directed activities. What is her level of interaction with each child and her influence on group dynamics? For example, does she encourage socialization and sharing?

Your relationship and ability to communicate with your child’s teacher is also important. Is she approachable and available for quick interactions at drop off or pick up? Does the school send out updates to parents? How personalized is the feedback?

Find out about the schools mandate regarding class size ratios. Most childcare centers range from 1:3 or 1:4 adults to infants or children, with this number decreasing, as the children get older. You need to consider if this equation will meet your child’s needs? (E.g. their level of independence and whether or not they are potty trained).

The curriculum

Another consideration involves what your child is learning and how learning occurs. Your child should be surrounded by words in the early years, in the form of reading, reading instruction, story telling and syllabication (e.g. “B” makes the “bah” sound, “bah” is for ball). This forms the building blocks for learning to read.

They should also be exposed to mathematical concepts, such as greater than less than, bigger, smaller and reinforcement of the number concept (e.g. I see you have three blocks).

Children require stimulation and experiences that tap into different areas of development and modes of learning. Does the school encourage the development of both fine and gross motor co-ordination? Examine the outside play equipment for safety and variety. Are children encouraged to be creative and explore various art and craft materials? Are the projects controlled or open-ended, enabling children to do different things with the same materials? Is there alternating quiet and active play? Are there opportunities for dramatic and fantasy play?

Separation guidelines and discipline

It is important to ask about the school’s introduce the child to school policy. Some schools allow parents to linger in and outside the classroom, while others prefer parents’ to leave after the second day. Make sure that you and your child are comfortable with and able to handle the schools policy in this regard.

Many schools have disciplinary rules. Establish whether or not these correspond with your home rules and values. Does the school use time out? What does this involve? Does a child sit alone or with a teacher? Are children punished for inappropriate behaviour? How are conflicts and issues such as throwing, biting and hitting addressed? Do parents and teachers address issues together as they arise? Ask for specifics to ensure you are satisfied with the schools approach.

Practical considerations

Cost and distance from home may also affect your decision. The benefits of selecting a school close to home include having your child’s playmates nearby, your family forming part of a community, and having the practical support of other parents.

Familiarize yourself with the schools hours and calendar. Do they offer an aftercare programme? When are the school and other special holidays? This information is essential if you need to plan backup childcare and budget ahead of time.

Real mom feedback

A good way to get honest feedback is to talk to other parents who send their children to the same school. Most parents will be happy to share information, which may help in the decision-making process.

Trust your intuition

Starting preschool is one of the biggest milestones in a child’s life. Navigating preschool options, narrowing down the choices and ultimately selecting what you hope is the “right” school for your child, is one of the innumerable tasks of parenting. Once you have an idea of what schools you are interested in, set up a time to visit and explore the school environment. Making appointments at different kinds of schools helps you identify what you like and what you don’t.

Once you have established your expectations, means and priorities, considered your child’s unique needs and personality, and explored viable options; it is time to select a school that fits for your family. Finding a preschool is an exciting, sometimes scary, important process. Trust your intuition and select an environment in which your child can thrive and build the foundations for further learning and development.